Device Classes Devices come in three “flavors”: Character, Block and Network. Character: Serial Access (Normally) Single word (byte) at a time Completes as it is called Block: Random Access Multiple words (bytes) at a time Uses Buffer Cache Delayed actual completion Network: Interrupt Push Different “device” structure Manipulation Tools Character and Block devices are accessed by device nodes. These are created using the mknod command (more later) and , by convention, are placed in a special /dev directory. They can exist anywhere and do not need the device driver NOTE These are not real files but special files that allow user tasks to communicate with the kernel based driver. The key elements in these files are: Device class (block or char) Major Number Minor Number This is an example of some possible entries in this directory. b = block c = char owner grp maj,min date name brw-rw---- 1 root disk 3,0 May 5 1998 hda brw-rw---- 1 root disk 3,1 May 5 1998 hda1 brw-rw---- 1 root disk 3,10 May 5 1998 hda10 . brw-rw---- 1 root disk 3,64 May 5 1998 hdb brw-rw---- 1 root disk 3,65 May 5 1998 hdb1 . crw-rw-r 1 root root 10,1 May 5 17:14 psaux . crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 5,0 May 5 1998 tty crw------- 1 root root 4,0 May 5 1998 tty0 crw------- 1 root tty 4,1 Feb 23 20:06 tty1 crw-rw---- 1 root uucp 19,0 Apr 17 1999 ttyC0 Major Numbers To look at the drivers installed on your system use the command: cat /proc/devices You should get an output of a number followed by a name like this: (Major Number/ Device Name ) Character devices: 1 mem 2 pty 3 ttyp 4 ttyS 5 cua 7 vcs 10 misc 14 sound 128 ptm 136 pts 254 pcmcia Block devices: 1 ramdisk 2 fd 3 ide0 22 ide1 The same major number can be used by both a char and a block driver. The major number provides the main link between the device, the kernel driver, and the user software. The user opens a device represented by a device node file (created by mknod). This special file was given a class (b-block or c- char) and a major number when it was created. The major number refers to a device driver that was registered within the kernel as servicing that particular class of device. Looking at /proc/devices you can see all the currently registered major numbers for both char and block devices. Minor Numbers The minor number is also specified by the special file (created by mknod). The main driver is referenced by the major number, but the minor number can be used to pick a particular instance of the device controlled by the driver. A serial driver may control several serial ports; in this the minor number may direct the driver to a particular port. In some cases the minor number can refer to a completely different set of read/ write operations. [root@train /root]# ls -l /dev/random crw-r--r-- 1 root root 1, 8 May 5 1998 /dev/random [root@train /root]# ls -l /dev/zero crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 1, 5 May 5 1998 /dev/zero The random and zero devices both have the same major number, but the different minor numbers result in different responses to read/write operations. [root@train /root]# ls -l /dev/ttyS* crw------- 1 root tty 4, 64 May 28 13:08 /dev/ttyS0 crw-rw-rw- 1 root tty 4, 65 Jun 7 23:08 /dev/ttyS1 crw------- 1 root tty 4, 66 Apr 28 09:47 /dev/ttyS2 crw------- 1 root tty 4, 67 May 5 1998 /dev/ttyS3 The serial driver uses the same software for each serial port. The minor number is used to change the actual physical address of the device being referenced. Major number allocation The main document used to determine the pre allocated device major numbers is linux-2.6.x/Documentation/devices.txt There is a move in more recent system to move away from a fixed allocation scheme and use dynamic device allocation for newer systems. This has some drawbacks for embedded systems since extra code is needed, as the device driver is set up, to determine the correct major numbers for a dynamically allocated driver. The devfs system was used in embedded systems to provide a means of automatically creating the entries in the /dev directory as each device was registered. This approach is being deprecated in the 2.6 kernels in favor of the kernel object filesystem sysfs.